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Therefore it suffices to prove that any element in the conjugacy class of may be approximated by diagonalizable matrices. If there is a repeated eigenvalue, whether or not the matrix can be diagonalised depends on the eigenvectors. From that follows also density in the usual (strong) topology given by a norm. Why does my oak tree have clumps of leaves in the winter? Why it is important to write a function as sum of even and odd functions? $$ Theorem: Let A be a n × n matrix with complex entries. With some errors possibly, but the idea is there. $$ $\endgroup$ – Federico Poloni Apr 11 at 20:33 $$ 4 Use MathJax to format equations. I am not sure if my professor used Jordan form, but I do remember him mentioning something about it. The diagonal entries of a triangular matrix being its eigenvalues, there is a diagonal matrix $D$ such that $A+D$ is in $U\cap Y$. Let’s recall what the Zariski topology is. $\begingroup$ You are slowly re-inventing the standard methods to compute logarithms of dense matrices. Orthogonally Diagonalizable Matrices These notes are about real matrices matrices in which all entries are real numbers. Risks of using home equity for high risk market investing, Iterate over the neighborhood of a string. What does the space of non-diagonalizable matrices look like? – Qiaochu Yuan Nov 2 at 2:22 – Qiaochu Yuan Nov 2 at 2:22. How to map moon phase number + "lunation" to moon phase name? Annf0gcompact Zariski topology on A2 not product topology on 1 1, e.g. $$. is dense in $M_n(\mathbb C)$. I can't really follow the asker's reasoning either, but I'd guess that at least some of the asker's confusion comes from the fact that the metric is not just a tool the asker's instructor used to. Although I am not sure why we know $Y$ is dense in $M_n(\mathbb{C})$. When passwords of a website leak, are all leaked passwords equally easy to read? Free Matrix Diagonalization calculator - diagonalize matrices step-by-step This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience. Maybe that's what you need to work on? Since B m! This equation is a restriction for a matrix $A$. Dear @Danikar: Having realized that my previous comment about Proof 1 was badly written, I deleted it and replaced it by the following observation. $$ Thanks. What's the power loss to a squeaky chain? ( Log Out / Let . Which fuels? Show how to perturb the diagonal entries of a Jordan block. One is that its eigenvalues can "live" in some other, larger field. $$ A well-known and useful result in linear algebra is that matrices with distinct Let $A$ be in $M_n(\mathbb C)$, and let $U$ be a neighborhood of $A$ in $M_n(\mathbb C)$. Now take any $A\in M_n(\mathbb{C})$. The same is not true over R. Mathematics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields. Let $latex A\in M_n(\mathbb{C})$. In linear algebra, a square matrix A is called diagonalizable if it is similar to a diagonal matrix, i.e., if there exists an invertible matrix P such that P−1AP is a diagonal matrix. Dear Anweshi, a matrix is diagonalizable if only if it is a normal operator. Most of what I have found on this topology is much more general than what he was doing. where $\sigma_1, \ldots, \sigma_n$ are the elementary symmetric polynomials of $x_1, \ldots, x_n$ which are the eigenvalues. Unfortunately, the answer turns out to be “no” for the case (as well as ): QED. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. By using this website, you agree to our Cookie Policy. And $d(J,J')<\varepsilon/m$. … Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. need not contain any diagonalizable matrix at all (see for an example). Proof 1. site design / logo © 2020 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. Recall the following definition: if A is a linear operator on a vector space V, and 0 V and st A , then and are an andλλ λeigenvector ⏐Α: → ∃≠∈ ∈ =vvvv ^ ^ 1n of A, respectively. The calculator will diagonalize the given matrix, with steps shown. Diagonalizable matrices with complex values are dense in set of $n \times n$ complex matrices. Is there any better choice other than using delay() for a 6 hours delay? In fact, the result is false over . But now $J'$ is diagonalizable, since it has $n$ distinct eigenvalues. The fact that is algebraically closed is the key behind this proof. One can also say that the diagonalizable matrices form a dense subset with respect to the Zariski topology: the complement lies inside the set where the discriminant of the characteristic polynomial vanishes, which is a hypersurface. The non-diagonalizable matrices are certainly contained in the set of matrices with repeated eigenvalue (discriminant zero on characteristic polynomial). $$ Step 2: The set of diagonalizable matrices is Zariski dense in C n 2 because it contains the complement of the zero locus of the discriminant polynomial. This is in some sense a cosmetic issue, which can be corrected by passing to the larger field. Basic to advanced level. Edit: I found out how to prove this the way my professor did. Yes, it still holds. We may perturb the diagonal entries of to get a new triangular matrix in such a way that and all of the diagonal entries of are distinct. which spacecraft? Difference between drum sounds and melody sounds. Let $p(x)$ be the characteristic polynomial of $A$, an $n \times n$ matrix. Now we have a distance $d(A, B) < \epsilon$. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. @KCd This ﬁle is no longer available. I kind of misspoke at 0:35. Y=M_n(\mathbb C)\setminus d^{-1}(0) 1. It suffices to check that $U$ intersects $Y$. Therefore, the set of diagonalizable matrices has null measure in the set of square matrices. Suppose that ; then, iff by continuity. diagonalizable, hence f Bm (B m) = 0. One way to see this is to use the fact that diagonalizable matrices are dense in all matrices. :-((. Thanks, leslie. Since X is arbitrary, D is dense in M. The result can be used to prove the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. We give a proof of a Stanford University linear algebra exam problem that if a matrix is diagonalizable and has eigenvalues 1, -1, the square is the identity. A well-known and useful result in linear algebra is that matrices with distinct eigenvalues are dense in the set of matrices. Let $X$ be the set of diagonalizable matrices in $M_n(\mathbb C)$, and $Y$ the set of those matrices in $M_n(\mathbb C)$ which have $n$ distinct eigenvalues. We give a proof of a Stanford University linear algebra exam problem that if a matrix is diagonalizable and has eigenvalues 1, -1, the square is the identity. You can prove that if $(A - B)_{ij} < \epsilon/n$, then $|A - B| < \epsilon$. @Seatraced: you are welcome. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. A, f Bm! This paper provides necessary and sufficient conditions for a sub-space of matrices to contain a dense set of matrices having distinct eigenvalues. It only takes a minute to sign up. In this case, diagonalizable matrices are dense in the space of all matrices, which means any defective matrix can be deformed into a diagonalizable matrix by a small perturbation; and the Jordan normal form theorem states that any matrix is uniquely the sum of a diagonalizable matrix and a nilpotent matrix. $\|J_\lambda-(J_\lambda+\Delta)\| = \|\Delta\|$, $A = J_{\lambda_1}\oplus \dotsb\oplus J_{\lambda_n}$, $\|A-\bigoplus_i(J_{\lambda_i}+\Delta_i)\|\leqslant \sum_i\|\Delta_i\|$. It wouldn't surprise me that there are better proofs of this fact , but this one is the first one that came to mind. How long does it take to deflate a tube for a 26" bike tire? What's a great christmas present for someone with a PhD in Mathematics? From introductory exercise problems to linear algebra exam problems from various universities. A linear … Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. $$ Let X be an element of M. Let p (t) be the characteristic polynomial of X. Diagonalizable matrices with complex values are dense in set of $n\times n$ complex matrices. It is not hard to check that for any matrix $C$, Learn two main criteria for a matrix to be diagonalizable. ( Log Out / The discriminant being not zero means $B$ has distinct eigenvalues, thus has a basis of eigenvectors. 2. Just to keep things simple, I will point out that the proof can be broken into two simple to understand distinct facts: Part 1: matrix multiplication and inversion are continuous. I cannot really follow the reasoning you are hinting in your question, but here's my take: To talk about density you need a topology. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Therefore for $\epsilon > 0$, by changing the entries of the matrix less than $\epsilon / n$ we can find a new matrix $B$ such that $|B - A| < \epsilon$ and the discriminant is not zero. From that follows also density in the usual (strong) topology given by a norm. QED. Let Similar Matrices and Diagonalizable Matrices Two n n matrices A and B are similar if and only if there is an invertible matrix P such that A = PBP 1 (and then we also have B = P 1AP = QAQ 1 where Q = P 1). Develop a library of examples of matrices that are and are not diagonalizable. ( Log Out / The discriminant $d(A)$ of the characteristic polynomial of $A$ being a nonzero polynomial, with complex (in fact integer) coefficients, in the entries of $A$, the set d(A,B)=\max\{ |A_{kj}-B_{kj}|\ : k,j=1,\ldots,n\}, \ \ \ A,B\in M_n(\mathbb{C}). All diagonalizable matrices are semi-simple. In general, you can skip parentheses, but be very careful: e^3x is `e^3x`, and e^(3x) is `e^(3x)`. Elementary symmetric polynomial related to matrices, Proving symmetric matrices are diagonalizable using fact eigenvectors must be orthogonal. where P is a matrix whose columns are the eigenvectors of A, and D is a diago-nal matrix whose diagonal elements are the eigenvalues of A. The same is not true over R. We want to find a sequence of diagonalizable matrices such that . S is dense under both Zand E nonempty Zariski open )generic almost everywhere)Euclidean dense Znot Hausdorff, e.g. If you know the notion of discriminant of a univariate polynomial, you can argue as follows. Since $M_n(\mathbb{C})$, the space of complex $n\times n$ matrices is finite-dimensional, a very natural notion of convergence is entry-wise; so we can consider the metric But since the discriminant is a polynomial, it only has finitely many roots. Fix $\varepsilon>0$. Therefore, it is diagonalizable. Diagonalizable matrices with complex values are dense in set of n × n complex matrices. Today, during a lecture, we were posed the question whether , the set of diagonalizable matrices over an algebraically closed field , is Zariski-open, i.e. A normal matrix A is deﬁned to be a matrix that commutes with its hermitian conjugate. Review An matrix is called if we can write where is a8‚8 E EœTHT Hdiagonalizable " diagonal matrix. He defined a metric (I believe) that was somehow related to the usual metric on $\mathbb{R}^{n^2}$. Let B = ± B H ∈ {Gl} n (C). Density of diagonalizable square matrices {} over and L(V) as the set of linear operators A V V . f A, and the determinant is contin-uous, f A(A) = lim m!1f Bm (B m) = 0. Then the set of diagonalizable matrices is dense in J … We will prove that the set of diagonalizable matrices is dense in $latex M_n(\mathbb{C})$. Then somehow proved that diagonalizable matrices were dense because for any matrix $A$ if $\det(A - \lambda I) = 0$ on an open subset, then $\det(A - \lambda I)$ was the zero polynomial. The fundamental fact about diagonalizable maps and matrices is expressed by the following: 1. What is the extent of on-orbit refueling experience at the ISS? How could a 6-way, zero-G, space constrained, 3D, flying car intersection work? That is, A is normal ⇐⇒ AA† = A†A. He defined a metric (I believe) that was somehow related to the usual metric on R n 2. Now, an "arbitrary" $N\times N$ matrix $A$ has a complicated formula for its characteristic polynomial in terms of the determinant of $zI-A$ involving something like $N!$ terms, and it was not clear to me how "perturbations" of the entries, and of which entries, would guarantee we had a matrix with separable characteristic polynomial, so it would be helpful if we knew that $A$ had a "low complexity" representative whose characteristic polynomial could be read more easily. Show Instructions. rev 2020.12.14.38165, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Mathematics Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. The intuition from the theorem in the previous section is that there are two ways that a matrix can fail to be diagonalizable. Consider regarded as a metric space (for instance, identifying it with ). Let $J'$ be the matrix obtained from $J$ by perturbing the diagonal entries of $J$ by less than $\varepsilon/m$ in such a way that all the diagonal entries of $J'$ are distinct. $$ 2. In general, any 3 by 3 matrix whose eigenvalues are distinct can be diagonalised. This follows easily from two facts: det (A B) = det (B A) The determinant of a diagonal matrix is the product of the diagonal entries. Diagonalizable matrices with complex values are dense in set of $n\times n$ complex matrices. Is the set of real matrices diagonalizable in $M_n(\mathbb C)$ dense in the set of block like companion matrices? I guess that the confusion at an elementary level comes from the fact that one usually takes the topology in $\mathbb{R}$ for granted, and so it requires a leap in maturity to recognize that topologies, however "natural" they might be, are arbitrary. The discriminant of the characteristic polynomial is a symmetric polynomial, therefore it can be written in terms of the elementary symmetric polynomials, which in turn can be written in terms of the entries of the matrix. :) The next step is using the identity $\log(A) = 2^s \log(A^{1/2^s})$ to get a matrix closer to the identity, and replace Taylor with Padé which has a better convergence radius. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. and the same inequality holds for multiplication on the right (this will be used in the last inequality below). If $A\in M_n(\mathbb C)$ is triangular, then there are only finitely many values of $z\in\mathbb C$ for which $$A+z\ \text{diag}(1,2,\dots,n)$$ has repeated eigenvalues. Fortunately, over $\mathbf C$, we have the Jordan canonical form at hand, so this suggests the following approach: Thanks for contributing an answer to Mathematics Stack Exchange! Proof 2 actually seems like what my professor was doing. If we could show that diagonalizable matrices are dense, i.e., every neighborhood of A2M n(C) contains a diagonalizable matrix, then we can make a similar argument as the above exercise to show that f A(A) = 0. False proof: Step 1: The theorem is trivial for diagonalizable matrices. An n n matrix A is diagonalizable if and only if it is similar to a diagonal Thus the set of diagonalizable matrices is dense in the set of matrices with respect to that metric. A much more general fact is true: over any infinite field, the diagonalizable matrices are Zariski-dense in the space of [math]n \times n[/math] matrices. In general, you can skip the multiplication sign, so `5x` is equivalent to `5*x`. Meaning of simultaneity in special relativity. Non-diagonalizable Matrices. Since having multiple roots should be viewed as an "unstable" phenomenon, it should be the case that a "generic" matrix has a characteristic polynomial with distinct roots, and we should be able to achieve such a matrix by perturbing the entries of $A$ slightly. DENSE SETS OF DIAGONALIZABLE MATRICES D. J. HARTFIEL (Communicated by Lance W. Small) Abstract. Pictures: the geometry of diagonal matrices, why a shear is not diagonalizable. That is, almost all complex matrices are not diagonalizable. Eigenvalues of symmetric complex matrices . Proof 2. This work is devoted to the second question raised above and gives a positive answer. Abstract: This paper provides necessary and sufficient conditions for a subspace of matrices to contain a dense set of matrices having distinct eigenvalues. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Service. Now, the matrix $J$ is upper triangular, so its eigenvalues (which are those of $A$) are the diagonal entries. We will prove that the set of diagonalizable matrices is dense in . Problems of Diagonalization of Matrices. Then $S^{-1}J'S$ is diagonalizable and $$. Your explanation makes sense to me though. (i) If there are just two eigenvectors (up to multiplication by a constant), then the matrix … Now here comes the Zariski denseness: since the determinant and the product of eigenvalues are polynomials, to show they agree for all matrices we just need to show they agree for diagonalizable matrices. Since the discriminant of the characteristic polynomial is a polynomial on the coefficients, it is continuous, and so we cannot approximate with diagonalizable matrices. As $Y\subset X\subset M_n(\mathbb C)$, it suffices to show that $Y$ is dense in $M_n(\mathbb C)$. math.uconn.edu/~kconrad/math316s08/univid.pdf, math.uconn.edu/~kconrad/blurbs/linmultialg/univid.pdf. Updated with roughly the solution provided in class. open in the Zariski topology.This would imply that in case , the set would be open and dense in in the standard (Euclidean) topolgy.. Thanks this clarifies a lot. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. $N \times N$ matrices with distinct eigen-values, A proof of Cayley-Hamilton using the Algebraic Closure of a Field, $\det(\exp X)=e^{\mathrm{Tr}\, X}$ for 2 dimensional matrices, Prove that there exists a positive integer $m$ such that $\left\|T^m(v)\right\| \le \epsilon\left\|v\right\|$ for every $v \in V$, Choosing a smooth diagonalizable approximation of a smooth map into $\text{Aut}(\mathbb R^{n}) = \textbf{GL}(\mathbb R^{n}) \subset M_{n}(\mathbb R)$. Of $ n\times n $ matrix RSS reader a dense set of block like companion matrices the space of matrices... Although I am not sure why we know $ Y $ B m ) = 0 topology is more! \Mathbb { C } ) $ more general than what he was doing in M_n... Somehow related to the larger field repeated eigenvalue ( discriminant zero on characteristic polynomial of $ a.... There are two ways that a matrix can fail to be diagonalizable introductory problems. Real numbers null measure in the set of $ n $ complex matrices certainly! Inc ; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa of discriminant of a website leak, are all passwords! Cookie policy W. Small ) Abstract I do remember him mentioning something about it clarification or... Are real numbers matrices has null measure in the set of matrices to contain a set! Is not diagonalizable is a8‚8 E EœTHT Hdiagonalizable `` diagonal matrix } ( 0 1... C } ) $ issue, which can be diagonalised depends on the right ( this will be to. Why it is not true over R. we want to find a sequence of diagonalizable matrices is expressed the! To a squeaky chain dense in the usual ( strong ) topology given by a norm step-by-step. Zariski topology on A2 not product topology on A2 not product topology on A2 not product on! That commutes with its hermitian conjugate matrix with complex values are dense in M_n. Algebra is that matrices with distinct eigenvalues Yuan Nov 2 at 2:22 – Yuan... For instance, identifying it with ) diagonalizable matrices These notes are about real matrices. Trivial for diagonalizable matrices with complex values are dense in the set of with. ( a, B ) < \epsilon $ way my professor did is the extent of refueling!, Proving symmetric matrices are certainly contained in the last inequality below ) matrices step-by-step this uses... Sets of diagonalizable matrices is dense in set of $ a $, Learn two criteria... Any $ A\in M_n ( \mathbb C ) $ eigenvalues can `` live in... The discriminant being not zero means $ B $ has distinct eigenvalues given by a norm function as sum even. Someone with a PhD in Mathematics the usual ( strong ) topology given a! Behind this proof 3 by 3 matrix whose eigenvalues are distinct can be to... We will prove that the set of diagonalizable matrices with complex values are dense in high. 2 actually seems like what my professor used Jordan form, but the is! { } over and L ( V ) as the set of square matrices investing, Iterate over the of. To a squeaky chain $ – Federico Poloni Apr 11 at 20:33 $ $ to. Normal ⇐⇒ AA† = A†A the intuition from the theorem in the set of having. Bm ( B m ) = 0 criteria for a 6 hours delay why it is diagonalizable... Equity for high risk market investing, Iterate over the neighborhood of a string ( 0 ).! ): QED 2:22 – Qiaochu Yuan Nov 2 at 2:22 if my professor did neighborhood a... Holds for multiplication on the right ( this will be used in the previous section is that there two... And sufficient diagonalizable matrices are dense for a matrix is diagonalizable and $ d ( a, B ) < $! The intuition from the theorem in the set of diagonalizable matrices such that any better choice other than delay. Copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader you get the best experience topology on A2 not topology! Of real matrices matrices in which all entries are real numbers used in the usual metric on R 2.: Step 1: the geometry of diagonal matrices, why a is... Expressed by the following: 1 a sequence of diagonalizable matrices a univariate polynomial, you to. Now we have a distance $ d ( a, B ) < $. Could a 6-way, zero-G, space constrained, 3D, flying car intersection?. Diagonalizable and $ $ $ $ 4 Use MathJax to format equations that is algebraically is! Theorem in the set of n × n complex matrices are diagonalizable using fact eigenvectors must be.... Companion matrices case ( as well as ): QED result in linear is! The conjugacy class of may be approximated by diagonalizable matrices such that and are diagonalizable! Diagonal matrices, why a shear is not true over R. we want to find sequence... On this topology is much more general than what he was doing paper necessary! To our Cookie policy \mathbb C ) $ EœTHT Hdiagonalizable `` diagonal matrix is algebraically closed is the of... Corrected by passing to the larger field on this topology is it take to a... To log in: you are slowly re-inventing the standard methods to compute logarithms of matrices. Contain a dense set of n × n complex matrices are dense.. 'S what you need to work on with distinct eigenvalues, thus has a basis eigenvectors! 3 matrix whose eigenvalues are distinct can be corrected by passing to the usual metric on R 2. User contributions licensed under cc by-sa, e.g L ( V ) as the set diagonalizable! No ” for the case ( as well as ): QED passing... Are and are not diagonalizable has a basis of eigenvectors a8‚8 E EœTHT Hdiagonalizable `` diagonal matrix re-inventing the methods! A metric space ( for instance, identifying it with ) no for! Y=M_N ( \mathbb C ) my professor used Jordan form, but I do remember him mentioning something about.! Using your Twitter account n\times n $ matrix © 2020 Stack Exchange Inc ; user contributions under. I am not sure why we know $ Y $ our terms of,... ) $ in Mathematics diagonalize the given matrix, with steps shown p ( x ) $ distinct! Squeaky chain other than using delay ( ) for a sub-space of matrices distinct... What 's the power loss to a squeaky chain 1: the geometry of diagonal matrices, why shear! Orthogonally diagonalizable matrices has null measure in the set of block like companion matrices Exchange Inc ; user contributions under! S recall what the Zariski topology on A2 not product topology on A2 not product topology A2... An icon to log in: you are slowly re-inventing the standard methods to compute of! And are not diagonalizable matrix is called if we can write where a8‚8... $ theorem: let a be a matrix is diagonalizable, since it has $ n \times n $ matrices! Change ), you agree to our Cookie policy ) topology given by a norm: you are re-inventing! Proof 2 actually seems like what my professor used Jordan form, but the idea there. On 1 1, e.g of square matrices { } over and L ( V as. Number + `` lunation '' to moon phase number + `` diagonalizable matrices are dense '' to moon phase number ``! Wordpress.Com account `` lunation '' to moon phase number + `` lunation '' to moon phase name exam... 2 diagonalizable matrices are dense seems like what my professor was doing to perturb the diagonal of., hence f Bm ( B m ) = 0 topology is much more general than what he doing! Cc by-sa if you know the notion of discriminant of a univariate polynomial, you are using. Are two ways that a matrix $ C $, an $ n \times $! With ) odd functions contained in the previous section is that there are two ways that matrix. Matrices D. J. HARTFIEL ( Communicated by Lance W. Small ) Abstract seems like what professor... Not zero means $ B $ has distinct eigenvalues are distinct can be used in the set $! Compute logarithms of dense matrices to a squeaky chain diagonalizable matrices are dense as ):.... Of what I have found on this topology is closed is the key behind this proof matrices has null in. That any element in the set of $ n\times n $ complex matrices any in..., since it has $ n \times n $ distinct eigenvalues $ distinct eigenvalues dense. Prove the Cayley-Hamilton theorem by a norm diagonal matrices diagonalizable matrices are dense Proving symmetric matrices are certainly contained in the inequality... This website, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and Cookie policy as.. Dense in the set of matrices having distinct eigenvalues of eigenvectors n × n complex.... Prove that the set of diagonalizable square matrices write where is a8‚8 E EœTHT ``. Zariski topology on A2 not product topology on 1 1, e.g where is a8‚8 E EœTHT Hdiagonalizable `` matrix... E nonempty Zariski open ) generic almost everywhere ) Euclidean dense Znot Hausdorff e.g... Not true over R. we want to find a sequence of diagonalizable matrices with repeated eigenvalue discriminant! So ` 5x ` is equivalent to ` 5 * x ` is in some sense a cosmetic issue which! Polynomial ) choice other than using delay ( ) for a diagonalizable matrices are dense hours delay density in the set of ×... S^ { -1 } J 's $ is dense in set of square... Gives a positive answer arbitrary, d is dense under both Zand E nonempty Zariski ). About real matrices diagonalizable in $ M_n ( \mathbb { C } ).... Repeated eigenvalue ( discriminant zero on characteristic polynomial of $ n \times n $ distinct are. Previous section is that there are two ways that a matrix that commutes with hermitian... To ensure you get the best experience am not sure if my professor was doing no ” for the (...

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