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aluminium nitrate blast

Saturday, January 16th, 2021
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The US cybersecurity and infrastructure security agency has also proposed a program to closely regulate the sale of transfer of ammonium nitrate. The chemical compound was used to make explosives for the … But the chemical has a more nefarious use -- as an explosive. The blast in St Mary Axe killed three people, including a 15-year-old girl. Beirut explosion: How ammonium nitrate caused deadly blast in Lebanon. Lebanon blast: Ammonium nitrate behind many industrial accidents. Beirut mayor Marwan Abboud told Agence France-Presse that 300,000 people are unable to return to their homes, as the damage covered half the city and could cost up to $15 billion to repair. Though Jeffrey Lewis, an arms control expert at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies, estimates it’s probably closer to 400 tons. And just five years ago, an estimated 800 tons of ammonium nitrate fueled a warehouse explosion that leveled part of a port in the Chinese city of Tianjin, killing 173. Look closely at footage of downtown Beirut, and you can see the ground warp and buckle just after the blast erupted from the warehouse on August 4. The huge change in phase creates a shockwave.”. It’s known to predispose people to the worst effects of respiratory diseases, including COVID-19. The blast was likely caused by the detonation of more than 2,700 tons of ammonium nitrate that had been stored at the dock since being confiscated from a … So what is ammonium nitrate, why is it explosive and why do we use it? Plants rely on photosynthesis, converting sunlight to energy using chlorophyll. "This is clearly a very significant explosion, and the reported number of deaths is likely to be far higher than currently identified," said David Caldicott, a senior clinical lecturer in medicine at the Australian National University. © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, © 2015- Blast calculations suggest that at sea level, an explosion like Beirut’s would require about 1,000 tons of ammonium nitrate. What detonated the explosive compound remains unclear—but the Beirut blast is not the first time ammonium nitrate has led to calamity. The accidental detonation of ammonium nitrate has resulted in a number of accidents in the last century. Show full articles without "Continue Reading" button for {0} hours. But David Chavez, an explosives scientist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, doubts that scenario. Lebanese Interior Minister Mohammed Fahmi, in comments to a local TV station, made no mention of ignited fireworks but said it appeared the blast was caused by the detonation of more than 2,700 tons of ammonium nitrate that had been stored in a warehouse at the dock ever since it was confiscated from a cargo ship in 2014. It's these gases that are responsible for the red-brown plume of smoke seen in the aftermath of the Beirut explosion, Rae said. Seventy-five years later, National Geographic revisits the elusive horror of Hiroshima. The colossal explosion in Lebanon’s capital this week was apparently caused when more than 2,700 tons of ammonium nitrate detonated. (Seventy-five years later, National Geographic revisits the elusive horror of Hiroshima.). The S.S. Grandcamp—carrying ammonium nitrate, fuel, and ammunition—arrived at the Houston-area port with smoke spewing from its cargo hold. Aluminium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent. Or, this discrepancy might mean that the material inside the warehouse was not pure ammonium nitrate, and some other compound was involved with the blast. In the Beirut explosion, the resulting shockwave moved faster than the speed of sound; cell phone videos show the impact washing over the city a few seconds before a sonic boom rumbles. Lebanon was already dealing with political and financial woes, due in part to the Syrian migration crisis and the coronavirus pandemic. Documents unearthed by Al Jazeera say the ammonium nitrate arrived in Beirut aboard a Russian-owned cargo ship after the vessel experienced mechanical problems at sea. Add enough of the oxidizer to a fire, and it will trigger an explosion. Two years before … Then, the ammonium nitrate cargo detonated in a blast so powerful it shook the ground for hundreds of miles and registered as an earthquake … Uses. 2021 National Geographic Partners, LLC. A mixture of ammonium nitrate and acetic acid ignites when warmed, especially if concentrated [Von Schwartz p. 322 1918]. On paper, ammonium nitrate is highly regulated in India. The massive explosions that killed at least 73 people and injured more than 3,700 others Tuesday evening in the Port of Beirut was caused by “materials … The US Environmental Protection Agency, in conjunction with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives lists a number of statutes and regulations involved in the manufacturing, processing and storage of ammonium nitrate. An aerial view shows the massive damage at Beirut port's grain silos and the surrounding area on August 5, 2020, one day after a massive explosion hit the heart of the Lebanese capital. According to Lebanon's Interior Minister, 2750 tonnes of ammonium nitrate went up in yesterday's blast. The products of the reaction are harmless -- they're found in our atmosphere -- but the process releases huge amounts of energy. Though Lebanese authorities have said ammonium nitrate was the culprit in the blast, Lewis notes that in many cases commercial explosives are referred to as just this compound even though they contain additives. See active ingredients, product application, restrictions, and more. In Australia, the storage and use of ammonium nitrate is monitored to prevent these types of explosions occurring, Kaiser said. Ammonium nitrate stored in a warehouse linked to catastrophic Beirut explosion Beirut was declared a "disaster city" by authorities on Wednesday, in the wake of a … :: Bishopsgate in the City of London was hit with a one-tonne fertiliser bomb by the Provisional IRA in April 1993. "What happened today will not come to pass without accountability," Diab said. Cook’s greatest commercial explosives invention was formulated in December of 1956, when he created a new blasting agent using an unusual mixture of ammonium nitrate, aluminum powder, and water. … A more likely explanation is that the ammonium nitrate in Beirut was not alone inside the warehouse. The explosive potential of ammonium nitrate is well understood and has been used in numerous terrorist attacks including the Oklahoma City bombing of 1995. Microsoft may earn an Affiliate Commission if you purchase something through recommended links in this article. It's not clear what else may have been ignited or exploded in the blast -- or what was stored at the docks -- but Prime Minister Diab is expected to make this information known "soon," according to The Guardian. If the ammonium nitrate in Beirut was stored in wooden or cardboard containers, it would have made the substance incredibly flammable, says Jimmie Oxley, a chemist at the University of Rhode Island. Reports suggest over 2,700 tons of ammonium nitrate detonated. Two days later, the death toll rose to at least 130 people with another 5,000 injured. Like us on Facebook to see similar stories, Disneyland cancels its annual pass program, Lawyer who handled 'Hong Kong 12' case loses legal licence. Given that these back-of-the-envelope calculations come with a wide margin of error, the estimate is consistent with the 2,750 tons that Lebanese officials say was stored by the port. Measured using this method, onlookers estimated the blast was roughly equivalent to 400 to 3,000 tons of TNT, an explosive material that’s also used as a unit to measure the destructiveness of explosions. But for the compound to figure in an explosion of this magnitude, chemists and explosives experts say a lot has to go wrong. Ammonium nitrate was also used in the 1995 Oklahoma City terror bombing that killed 168 people and the 2011 Oslo bombing that killed eight people. The shipment was eventually abandoned, and its cargo moved into the hangar where it remained, despite Lebanese custom officials requesting its disposal on at least six different occasions, according to The New York Times. “There’s a massive amount of energy given off very quickly,” says Stephen Beaudoin, a chemical engineer also at Purdue University. An explosion of ammonium nitrate was responsible for the worst industrial accident in US history in 1947. Keith Craig of the Stockton Community Action Group said it … Though the causative agent of the larger, second explosion appears to be ammonium nitrate, the full scale of the devastation in Lebanon isn't yet completely understood and an investigation will be performed. View the product label for Aluminum Nitrate 60% Solution from Mineral Research and Development. Such investigations may take time. The Air Force in its routine missim ... Silver nitrate Aluminum Cadmium Chlorine Chloride ion Chl.Jrate ion Copper Cyanide ( ion} Cyanogen chloride Cyanate ( ion} Carbon dioxide Carbonate ion Chromium Iron Though ammonium nitrate was first synthesized in 1659 by German chemist Johann Rudolf Glauber, it wasn’t used in explosives until World War I, when weapon makers mixed it with TNT (aka dynamite) to make cheaper bombs. Indian Regulation For Ammonium Nitrate . Since 1916, the chemical has been responsible for at least 30 disasters, some accidental and some intentional. A number of explosions in which ammonium nitrate and aluminum are mixed with carbon, hydrocarbons, with or without oxidizing agents has occurred [Mellor 5:219 1946-47]. The likely cause of the huge blast in Beirut on Tuesday appears to have been the highly reactive chemical ammonium nitrate. In the aftermath of the blast, videos show plumes of red-brown smoke and the apocalyptic extent of the destruction, with buildings leveled for miles. Measurements of detonation velocity were performed. A large explosion rocked the Lebanese capital Beirut on August 4. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast … The blast itself was heard up to 25 miles south of the city, and many streets in Beirut are now paved with broken glass. Lebanon’s prime minister, Hassan Diab, said … But the compound can contribute to explosions because it belongs to a chemical class known as oxidizers. Ammonium nitrate would only explode on its own if its temperature was rapidly raised to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. He has also announced that Wednesday will be a national day of mourning in the country and the port and surrounding region has been declared a disaster zone. Connect with friends faster than ever with the new Facebook app. Oxidizers do the opposite: They increase the amount of oxygen molecules that concentrate in a space, which helps make other substances more flammable. Some internet rumors speculate that because the ammonium nitrate was left to sit in a warehouse for several years, it would have degraded, becoming more volatile and increasingly dangerous over time. Two explosions are said to have rocked the port. Ammonium Nitrate is used by the military around the world as an explosive as well as in terrorist activities like the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, killing 168 people. An explosion of ammonium nitrate was responsible for the worst industrial accident in US history in 1947. There are also longer-term effects to consider. Ammonium nitrate is the fertilizer compound that can be used in explosives, said John Goodpaster, who researches explosives at Indiana at University-Purdue University Indianapolis. “It’s relatively difficult to make pure ammonium nitrate go off unless you add things to it and cook it in a giant fire,” says Davin Piercey, a chemist at Purdue University. Ammonium nitrate, which Lebanese authorities have said was the cause of the Beirut blast, is an odourless crystalline substance commonly used as … Given the reported amount, Oxley hypothesizes that a vehicle must have been used to carry the compound inside, and that could have contaminated it with oil or gasoline. After the fireball erupts in the video above, you can immediately see the shock wave expanding away from the blast. The research on an effect of aluminium contents on detonation characteristics of ammonium nitrate explosives was carried out. Ammonium nitrate is an odourless crystalline substance that is naturally stable and used in fertilisers, but when mixed with other chemicals such as oil can create a potent explosive. The blast registered as magnitude 3.3 on the Richter scale, and caused devastation usually associated with major earthquakes. Using math pioneered in the 1940s to infer the atomic bomb’s yield, experts can analyze videos of a shockwave to get rough estimates of an explosion’s total energy and how much material blew up. The blast filled Beirut’s air with particulate matter, one of the most common forms of air pollution. The stockpile had … “All kinds of other materials probably ignited and burned,” says Beaudoin. But with rapid heating or detonation, a chemical reaction can occur that converts ammonium nitrate to nitrogen and oxygen gas and water vapor. An explosion at a warehouse in the Port of Beirut on Tuesday killed more than 100 people and left more than 4,000 people injured. Moreover, the decomposition of ammonium nitrate can create byproducts known as nitrogen oxides, which are known to cause respiratory distress. “It will oxidize that fuel very rapidly, create a huge amount of gas, and give off a huge amount of heat. “Ammonium nitrate does not degrade with time under normal storage conditions,” he says. When something burns, it requires oxygen—that’s why fire extinguishers can easily put out flames by smothering them. A ship in the harbor of Texas City, Texas, carrying approximately 2,300 tons of … In 2015, explosions partly caused by the detonation of around 800 tons of ammonium nitrate rocked the Beijing port of Tianjin, killing 173 people. It's also an explosive compound and is used around the world in mining and construction operations requiring detonations. When heated, ammonium nitrate decomposes non-explosively into gases of oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor; however, it can be induced to decompose explosively by … The ensuing explosion killed some 600 people, including everyone on the dock and ship. A giant explosion occurs during the loading of fertilizer onto the freighter Grandcamp at a pier in Texas City, Texas, on April 16, 1947. The Associated Press contributed to this article. Some of it decomposes slowly creating toxic gases like nitrogen oxides. Any carbon-rich fuel—paper, cardboard, or even sugar—can pair with ammonium nitrate to produce more intense energy. Richter scale, and ammunition—arrived at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in new Mexico, doubts that.! Which are known to cause respiratory distress a lot has to go.. Produces and stores enormous amounts of ammonium nitrate was responsible for at least 30 disasters, some accidental some! 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